Transurethral resection. The surgeon inserts a cystoscope through the urethra into the bladder. Tissue containing cancer cells can be surgically removed or burned away with an electric current called fulguration.
Segmental cystectomy. Removal of a small portion of the bladder that contains the cancerous tissue. This procedure is most effective when there is only a single site of cancer cells in the bladder.
Radical cystectomy. Removal of the bladder, lymph nodes near the bladder, and any nearby organs that contain cancer cells. This procedure is usually used when there are multiple areas of cancerous cells in the bladder and there is metastasis to other sites. When the bladder is removed, a urostomy procedure is performed. This is a surgical procedure to create another opening for urine to drain. Women who have a radical cystectomy usually have their uterus, ovaries, and part of the vagina removed as well. The prostate gland and seminal vesicles are usually removed in men who have a radical cystectomy.